Annals of Science and Technology Policy > Vol 2 > Issue 1

Measuring Science, Technology, and Innovation: A Review

Bronwyn H. Hall, University of California at Berkeley, USA and Max Planck Institute, Munich, Germany, bhhall@econ.berkeley.edu Adam B. Jaffe, Brandeis University, USA, ajaffe@brandeis.edu
 
Suggested Citation
Bronwyn H. Hall and Adam B. Jaffe (2018), "Measuring Science, Technology, and Innovation: A Review", Annals of Science and Technology Policy: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 1-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/110.00000005

Published: 27 Mar 2018
© 2018 B. H. Hall and A. B. Jaffe
 
Subjects
 
Keywords
JEL codes: O30 InnovationO32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&DO38 Government Policy
Science policyIndicatorsR&DInnovation
 

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In this article:
1. What is an indicator?
2. A model of the STI system
3. Overview of existing U.S. indicators
4. International context
5. STI indicators for STI policy
6. Issues and Gaps in existing U. S. indicators
7. Conclusion
References
Author Biography

Abstract

The measurement of scientific, technological, and innovative activities (STI) in the economy is an increasing challenge faced by statistical agencies around the world. In this review, we survey the current state of the art.We discuss the concept of indicators, their quality and use, and present a schematic model of the STI system that can help us identify gaps in the set of indicators commonly in use. We then review the developments in STI measurement that have taken place in the rest of the world, particularly the widespread use of innovation surveys. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the measurement gaps and issues in the U.S., which we identify as innovation (especially in the service sector), non-R&D investment related to innovation, data timeliness, data linkages, measurement related to public policy goals, and the sources of capital for innovation.

DOI:10.1561/110.00000005
ISBN: 978-1-68083-400-0
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Table of contents:
1. What is an indicator?
2. A model of the STI system
3. Overview of existing U.S. indicators
4. International context
5. STI indicators for STI policy
6. Issues and Gaps in existing U. S. indicators
7. Conclusion
References
Author Biography

Measuring Science, Technology, and Innovation: A Review

The measurement of scientific, technological, and innovative activities (STI) in the economy is an increasing challenge faced by statistical agencies around the world. Measuring Science, Technology, and Innovation: A Review surveys the current state of the art including the concept of indicators, their quality and use, and a schematic model of the STI system that can identify gaps in the set of indicators commonly in use. The authors review the developments in STI measurement that have taken place in the rest of the world, particularly the widespread use of innovation surveys. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the measurement gaps and issues in the U.S., which we identify as innovation (especially in the service sector), non-R&D investment related to innovation, data timeliness, data linkages, measurement related to public policy goals, and the sources of capital for innovation.

After an introduction, Section 2 summarizes the framework for analysis of the STI system that is most widely used by economists. Section 3 considers how the specific data currently collected by the U.S. government, and indicators constructed from those data, relate to the important concepts within the framework. Section 4 expands this discussion by reviewing data collected and indicators published by other countries and international organizations. Section 5 then turns to the issues of policy, and draws explicit connections between important policy questions and indicators, using the framework of Section 2. Section 6 builds on these discussions to highlight gaps and issues with the existing indicators, and Section 7 provides concluding comments.

 
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