Foundations and Trends® in Electric Energy Systems > Vol 4 > Issue 4

Cyber–Physical System Security of Distribution Systems

By Chen-Ching Liu, Virginia Tech, USA, ccliu@vt.edu | Juan C. Bedoya, Virginia Tech, USA | Nitasha Sahani, Virginia Tech, USA | Alexandru Stefanov, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands | Jennifer Appiah-Kubi, Virginia Tech, USA | Chih-Che Sun, Washington State University, USA | Jin Young Lee, Washington State University, USA | Ruoxi Zhu, Virginia Tech, USA

 
Suggested Citation
Chen-Ching Liu, Juan C. Bedoya, Nitasha Sahani, Alexandru Stefanov, Jennifer Appiah-Kubi, Chih-Che Sun, Jin Young Lee and Ruoxi Zhu (2021), "Cyber–Physical System Security of Distribution Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electric Energy Systems: Vol. 4: No. 4, pp 346-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/3100000026

Publication Date: 13 Sep 2021
© 2021 Chen-Ching Liu, Juan C. Bedoya, Nitasha Sahani, Alexandru Stefanov, Jennifer Appiah-Kubi, Chih-Che Sun, Jin Young Lee and Ruoxi Zhu
 
Subjects
Distribution systems,  Cyber-physical systems security and privacy
 

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In this article:
1. Introduction
2. Power Grid Vulnerabilities and Security Measures
3. ICT in Cyber-transmissions Systems
4. ICT in Cyber-distribution Systems
5. Cyber Security of a Distribution System
6. Smart Grid Communication and Cybersecurity Standards
7. Modeling and Detection of Cyber Intrusions
8. Attack Mitigation in Distribution Systems
9. Cyber–Physical System Model
10. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Abstract

The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for control and monitoring of power systems is a layer on top of the physical power system infrastructure. The cyber system and physical power system components form a tightly coupled Cyber–Physical System (CPS). Sources of vulnerabilities arise from the computing and communication systems of the cyber–power grid. Cyber intrusions targeting the power grid are serious threats to the reliability of electricity supply that is critical to society and the economy. In a typical Information Technology environment, numerous attack scenarios have shown how unauthorized users can access and manipulate protected information from a network domain. The need for cyber security has led to industry standards that power grids must meet to ensure that the monitoring, operation, and control functions are not disrupted by cyber intrusions. Cyber security technologies such as encryption and authentication have been deployed on the CPS. Intrusion or anomaly detection and mitigation tools developed for power grids are emerging. This survey paper provides the basic concepts of cyber vulnerabilities of distribution systems and CPS security. The important ICT subjects for distribution systems covered in this paper include Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition, Distributed Energy Resources, including renewable energy and smart meters.

DOI:10.1561/3100000026
ISBN: 978-1-68083-852-7
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Table of contents:
1. Introduction
2. Power Grid Vulnerabilities and Security Measures
3. ICT in Cyber-transmissions Systems
4. ICT in Cyber-distribution Systems
5. Cyber Security of a Distribution System
6. Smart Grid Communication and Cybersecurity Standards
7. Modeling and Detection of Cyber Intrusions
8. Attack Mitigation in Distribution Systems
9. Cyber-Physical System Model
10. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Cyber–Physical System Security of Distribution Systems

Threats of cyberattacks targeting the electric power grid have been increasing in recent years. The consequence of cyber incidents on the power grid includes equipment damage, cascading events, large-scale power outages, and disruption of market functions. Government and industry have made a significant effort to strengthen the protection of the power infrastructure against cyber threats by setting standards and guidelines.

This survey paper provides the basic concepts of cyber vulnerabilities of distribution systems and cyber-physical system security. Important ICT subjects for distribution systems covered in this paper include Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), including renewable energy and smart meters.

This publication is intended to serve as a module in senior-level undergraduate as well as graduate courses in power engineering. The objective of this paper is to provide fundamental concepts of cyber security for the distribution system as a cyber-physical system. To meet the objective, vulnerabilities of cyber intrusions and mitigation strategies are discussed. The evolution of the ICT for the power grid and cyber security measures are presented, as well as the ICT in the power system environment. An overview of smart grid communication standards and protocols are included, and the detection of cyber intrusions in distribution systems are considered. Finally, simulation cases are provided.

 
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