Quarterly Journal of Political Science > Vol 17 > Issue 4

The Rank Effect in Multimember District Elections

B. K. Song, Department of Political Science, Sogang University, South Korea, bksong99@gmail.com
Suggested Citation
B. K. Song (2022), "The Rank Effect in Multimember District Elections", Quarterly Journal of Political Science: Vol. 17: No. 4, pp 547-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/100.00021045

Publication Date: 25 Oct 2022
© 2022 B. K. Song
Elections,  Electoral behavior,  Electoral institutions,  Political parties,  Voting behavior,  Voting
Rank effectregression discontinuity designmultimember district systemelections


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In this article:
Theoretical Discussion 
Background and Data 


In this paper, I estimate the effects of first rank using a regression discontinuity design in the context of three multimember district (MMD) elections, in Korea, Spain, and Japan. By analyzing MMD elections, I can estimate the effects of first rank separately from those of incumbency because there are multiple winners with different ranks. The results indicate that there is no first-rank effect on the outcomes of subsequent elections in any of the three cases. However, I do find evidence that achieving first rank increases candidates' probabilities of running for and winning higher office. In addition, I show that the first-rank effect on political advancement is likely to be driven by political parties, not by voters.